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HB LED and ceramic benefits The key requirement of directional HB LED encapsulation is that the two sides of the package substrate need to be "circuit", and the copper rail through the substrate, which connects both sets of circuits. This is essential because the package substrate needs to be installed on the module or lamp circuit. A through hole filled with conductive copper is required, but these through holes need to be isolated from the rest of the circuit.
This underestimates such materials as metal-core PCB (MCPCB). So far, the only market material to meet this requirement is electronic ceramics. Ceramics are ideal because it is a natural dielectric and some types of ceramics are excellent thermal conductors.
The through hole drilled into the substrate is electrically isolated from the rest of the material. Ceramics are a good choice, and another reason is that they can be achieved through very high resolution direct copper plating (DPC) process. DPC is an additive process in which the copper trajectory is sputtered onto a ceramic to build a circuit instead of using a reduction process.
This process is very precise with copper, measured in micron precision. This is where Low-cost MCPCB fail again. In order to make dielectric layer for MCPCB, it is necessary to add epoxy resin to glue the copper circuit to the surface of the metal core. It is the epoxy resin layer that is used as a dielectric and is usually mixed with ceramic particles to improve thermal performance. This can only be done through the reduction process, and then again, ceramics become the only option.